Contribution of intellectual property rights intensive industries in the European Union

EUIPO, through the European Observatory on Infringements of Intellectual Property Rights and with partners including the Community Plant Variety Office and the European Patent Office have carried out several EU-wide studies on the contribution of intellectual property rights (IPRs) to the EU economy.

These studies aim to provide evidence to support policymaking and form a basis for raising awareness among Europe’s citizens about the value of intellectual property.

 

 

Latest studies

Impact of the Community Plant Variety Rights system on the EU economy and the environment
Publication date: April 2022

 

This study quantifies the economic contribution in the European Union of the Community Plant Variety Right (CPVR) system. While it is analogous to the EUIPO studies on the economic contribution of the other IP rights, it considers specific aspects of agriculture and horticulture, such as the contribution of the PVR system to the global competitiveness of EU farmers and growers. In addition to the economic contribution, the study also quantifies the benefits to the environment and sustainability derived from the CPVR system.

 

Intellectual property right-intensive industries and economic performance in Latin American countries
Publication date: January 2022

 

This paper presents a comparison of the results of five studies from IP Key and IP offices in Latin American countries (Mexico, Peru, Argentina, Chile and Uruguay).

 

Intellectual property rights and firm performance in the European Union
Publication date: February 2021

 

This study compares the economic performance of companies that own IPRs with those that do not. The IP rights included in this study are patents, trade marks and designs — both European and national rights.

 

IPR-intensive industries and economic performance in the European Union
Publication date: September 2019

 

This study provides an updated assessment of the combined contribution of industries that make intensive use of the various types of intellectual property rights (IPRs) to the economy of the EU as a whole as well as those of individual European countries.

 

High growth firms and intellectual property rights: IPR profile of high-potential SMEs in Europe
Publication date: May 2019

 

This study draws on a rich dataset linking demographic information on European SMEs in manufacturing industries from 2005 to 2010 with data stored in the national and European registers for patents, trade marks and industrial design rights.

 

 

Impact of the Community Plant Variety Rights system on the EU economy and the environment

To help achieve the goals of the European Green Deal, CO2 emissions from agriculture must be reduced in the coming years. Other environmental considerations call for less intensive use of pesticides, fertiliser and other chemicals, while at the same time maintaining and increasing food production to cope with the demands of the European and global markets. This multifaceted challenge can only be met by creating new varieties of crops that use fewer resources while enhancing productivity of European agriculture.

And given the climate change is already happening, these new varieties must also be able to cope with the changing climate. A great deal of innovation in breeding of plant varieties is therefore required. Such innovation is underpinned by the Community Plant Variety Rights (CPVR) on the EU level, managed by the Community Plant Variety Office (CPVO). This report, a joint publication of the EUIPO and the CPVO, highlights the very significant contributions made by the CPVR system to the economy and to the environment during the past 25 years, thereby supporting the EU’s economic and environmental goals.

 

Main findings:

  • In the absence of the CPVR system, in 2020 production of arable crops in the EU would be 6.4% lower, production of fruit would be 2.6% lower, that of vegetables 4.7% lower, and finally, the output of ornamentals would be 15.1% lower.
  • Without the added production attributable to CPVR-protected crops, the EU’s trade position with the rest of the world would worsen (for some crops, the EU might even switch from being a net exporter to a net importer), and EU consumers would face higher food prices.
  • The annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture and horticulture are reduced by 62 million tons per year. This corresponds to the total GHG footprint of Hungary, Ireland or Portugal.
  • Many of the companies protecting their innovations with CPVRs are small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). These small companies account for more than 90% of the registrants of CPVRs and hold 60% of all CPVRs currently in force.
 

 

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Intellectual property right-intensive industries and economic performance in Latin American countries

This paper presents a comparison of the results of five studies from IP Key and IP offices in Latin American countries (Mexico, Peru, Argentina, Chile and Uruguay). These studies follow a similar methodology to measure the contribution of IPR-intensive industries in a comparable way with the EUIPO/EPO and USPTO studies. They provide an assessment of the combined contribution to the economies of these Latin American countries from industries that make intensive use of the different types of intellectual property rights (IPR). The study confirms the economic benefits of trade marks, designs, patents, and copyright.

Main findings:

  • The contribution of Mexico’s design-intensive industries to GDP (19.2%) and exports (56.3%) are the highest of the five countries. This is led by the manufacture of motor vehicles and components.
  • Argentina shows the highest GDP and employment contribution from copyright-intensive industries (15.3% and 10% respectively).
  • The contribution of mining to the GDP and exports of Peru and Chile is very noticeable. These industries are trade mark and patent-intensive in Peru but in Chile they are just trade mark-intensive. This is explained by the different selection of patent-intensive industries in Peru, including all applications regardless of their residence status.
  • Uruguay shows the lowest contribution of IPR-intensive industries to exports of goods (44%).

 

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Intellectual property rights and firm performance in Europe: an economic analysis

This study compares the economic performance of companies that own IPRs with those that do not. The IP rights included in this study are patents, trade marks and designs — both European and national rights.

Main findings:

  • Companies that own IPRs have 20% higher revenue per employee than companies that do not.
  • Correcting for relevant factors such as sector, company size and country, this revenue premium rises to 55% and even higher for SMEs.
  • IPR-owning companies pay wages that are on average 19% higher than firms that do not own IPR.
  • About 60% of large companies own IPRs.
  • Although less than 9% of small businesses own IPRs, the firms that do have 68% more revenue per employee than firms that do not.
 

How was the firm-level study conducted?

The IPRs included in the study are patents, trade marks and designs (and any combination of the three). The study includes both European and national IPRs, which improves the available data greatly, and provides a complete view of each company's IPR portfolio — both European and national rights.

The data on each company's IPR portfolio was matched with information contained in ORBIS, a commercial database. This database provides financial and other information on millions of European companies, collected from the filings and accounting reports made by the companies in the commercial registers of all EU Member States. The study was carried out in collaboration with the European Patent Office. Compared to the 2015 study, important improvements in the methodology have been made, and while the earlier study was based on data for 12 Member States, the new edition includes data for all 27 Member States and the United Kingdom.

 

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Intellectual property rights intensive industries and economic performance in the European Union (2019)

This study is the latest update in a series which provides an assessment of the combined contribution to the economies of the EU from industries that make intensive use of the different types of intellectual property rights (IPR). The study confirms the economic benefits for Europe of trade marks, designs, patents, copyright, geographical indications (GI) and plant variety rights.

Main findings:

  • IPR-intensive industries generated 29.2% (63 million) of all jobs in the EU during the period 2014-2016.
  • 38.9% of all employment in the EU (83.3 million) can be attributed, directly or indirectly, to IPR-intensive industries
  • 45% of the total economic activity (GDP) in the EU is attributable to IPR-intensive industries, worth EUR 6.6 trillion
  • IPR-intensive industries pay significantly higher wages than other industries, with a wage premium of 47%
  • IPR-intensive industries accounted for most of the EU’s trade with the rest of the world and generated a trade surplus, thus helping to keep the EU's external trade broadly balanced
 

How was the industry-level study conducted?

In order to ensure comparability between the three studies, the same methodology has been used as before. However, a number of improvements have been made as regards the underlying data and the methodology. In particular, the matching exercise used to identify IPR-intensive industries has been updated to ensure that the selection reflects recent developments. In addition, to complement the data for the EU member states, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland have been included in this study.

 

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